GET Journal of Biosecurity and One Health

GET Journal of Biosecurity and One Health (2023)

Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from Urine of Patients Attending Ajikobi Hospital, Ilorin, North Central, Nigeria

Authors: Omotosho AO1,2* and Bale MI1,3

GET Journal of Biosecurity and One Health, Volume 2, Issue 2, (2023)

Article Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance; Bacteriuria; Erythromycin; Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; Urinary Tract Infections; Vancomycin


Journal Volume & Issue

Volume 2, Issue 2


Volume 1, No. 4, 2022

Pages 34-40

Ebola Survivors are not at Increased Risk for Gynecologic Surgeries

Gorpudolo-Dennis N1; Kennedy SB2*; Reilly C3 and Sankoh M1

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Redemption Hospital, New Kru Town, Montserrado County, Monrovia, Liberia.

2UL-PIRE Africa Center, An Infectious Disease Research Center, Ground Floor, Graduate School Building, University of Liberia, Monrovia, Liberia.

3Department of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

*Corresponding Author: Stephen B. Kennedy, MD, MPH, UL-PIRE Africa Center, An Infectious Disease Research Center
Ground Floor, Graduate School Building, University of Liberia, Monrovia, Liberia. Tel: +231 770 645 830

Orchid No:


As the result of multiple signs and symptoms, and complications observed among survivors of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), there is an assumption that survivors might experience perturbations within their clotting parameters. This may eventually lead to increased bleeding time, predisposing them to increased risk for surgical complications. This study aimed to comparatively review specific intra-operative parameters such as uterine fibroids and polyps among a number of EVD survivors and non survivors undergoing elective gynecologic surgeries at Redemption Hospital, a tertiary specialized referral hospital located within one of the EVD hotspots, in Liberia from January to October 2016. A case-control study was conducted wherein cases were referred from the Partnership for Research on Vaccines and Infectious Diseases in Liberia (PREVAIL), an EVD clinical trial platform, while controls were sampled from the general patient population, at Redemption Hospital. The controls were matched based on age, employment status and parity. All surgeries were performed by single surgeon based on a surgical checklist that included designated intra- and post-operative parameters. Statistical analysis such as counts, percentiles, confidence intervals and relative risks were performed to assess the differences between the cases and controls, respectively. Survivors were between the ages of 42 years and 44 years for controls with an average interval between discharge from the Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) and surgical intervention of greater than one year. The median duration of surgical procedure was 60 minutes and blood loss of 250 ml in both groups. Besides the relative risks (RR) of receiving antibiotics for more than 3 days of 1.5 (85.7% vs. 57.1%) and hospitalization of more than 7 days of 0.25 (14% vs. 57%) for survivors as compared to controls, most of the indicators were not significantly different. The findings revealed that EVD survivors who present with benign tumors such as uterine fibroids, polyps, or adenomyosis, requiring elective uterine surgery such as myomectomy and/or hysterectomy are generally not at increased risk of surgical complications because most of the indicators (hospitalization, blood loss, antibiotics, etc.) were not significantly different between the two groups. Findings from this study may potentially revise the approaches used by gynecologists and general surgeons during encounters and/or interventions with patient(s) concerning emerging infectious diseases (EIDs).

Keywords: Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs), Ebola Survivors, Uterine Surgery, Females, Liberia


Antibiotic resistance is becoming the next public health emergency as opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus are gaining resistance to frontline antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in urine samples of patients attending Ajikobi
Cottage Hospital in Ilorin, Kwara State. A total of 170 urine samples from male and female patients of 10-70 years age groups were aseptically collected and cultured on mannitol salt agar for isolation. Biochemical tests were carried out for identification, and antbiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. A total of 46 (27%) S. aureus were obtained, 40 (36%) from females and 6 (10%) from males. The highest occurrence was recorded between the ages of 21-30 and 31-40 years, with 35% and 23%, with females in these groups accounting for 55% and 22%, respectively.
This accounts for a high-rate of bacterial infection amongst sexually active women of child bearing age groups. This was followed by 19% and 17% for age groups 10-20 and 41-50, respectively. The lowest incidence from this research was recorded in age groups above 50 years, with 0%. Antibiotics sensitivity profiles of the 46 isolates of S. aureus tested showed that 71% were resistant to ampicillin, followed by 50% resistance to erythromycin, 43% to amoxicillin, followed by 26%, 19%, 13% and 8.6% resistance to
cefoxitin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin respectively. A total of 5 (10.8%) multidrug-resistant S.aureus was recorded from this study. Resistance to vancomycin from this study is of public health concern that requires due attention, as vancomycin is a last-resort antibiotic used to treat serious infections